Political and Economic Changes

United Kingdom, Iran, Nigeria, China, Russia, and Mexico 

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December 1532
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December 3 (Saturday)  
1532-1536: Reformation- establishment of the Church of England

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    • The reformation resulted in dramatic changes to the religious, economic, and cultural structure of European society 

    • Individuals were pleased with removal from Catholic Church because many felt church officials were abusing their power 

    • Increased English Autonomy 

    • Shut down monasteries and seized properties→ doubled state revenue

August 1642
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August 22 (Friday)  
1642-1660: Civil war and Restoration

Conflict between Parliament and Charles I: king ignored parliament when making laws→ escalated after both claimed control of military → Charles I was executed and the nation shifted from belief of divine right of king to government distribution of power

January 1688
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January 1 (Thursday)  
1688: Glorious Revolution

    • Passage of laws that ended any pretense of an absolute monarchy and made the king accountable to Parliament in almost everything he did 

June 1701
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June 12 (Sunday)  
1701: Act of Settlement

    • This act was passed soon after the king and Parliament agreed to Bill of Rights (made it illegal for monarch to impose taxes or enforce laws without consent of Parliament)

    • Regularized the succession to the throne and asserted that the king and queen had to obey laws passed by Parliament 

February 1832
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February 5 (Sunday)  
1832: Great Reform Act

    • Despite name, reform was not very successful→ aristocracy continued to dominate political life (however, aristocracy’s willingness to adapt to sharing political power moved country in very different economic direction)

January 1904
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January 1 (Friday)  
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

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October 1905
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October 7 (Saturday)  
1905-1911: Constitutional Revolution

    • Initially succeeded because it promised to firm the legal status of Islam, strengthen the state, institute economic reforms, and codify legal system 

    • Establishment of the first Majlis (parliament)

    • Conditions worsened (conflict between different leaders and views) 

November 1910
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November 20 (Sunday)  
Francisco Madero (Nov 20, 1910)

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  • Francisco Madero, a landowning lawyer and a member of Mexico’s liberal, educated class, unsuccessfully opposes Díaz in the year’s presidential elections.

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November 20 (Sunday)  
Mexican Revolution: November 20, 1910

    • Start of the Mexican Revolution. Middle-class protested against dictator, Porfiro Diaz, due to the growing rift between the rich and poor.

January 1911
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January 1 (Sunday)  
Overthrow of the Qing dynasty (1911)

    • Qing Dynasty was China’s last imperial dynasty

    • People’s Republic of China was established

February 1913
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February 1 (Saturday)  
Madero is overthrown by a coup led by his own military chief, General Victoriano Huerta. (February 1913)
January 1914
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January 1 (Thursday)  
WWI Outbreak (1914)
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January 1 (Thursday)  
Unification of Nigeria as a single colony (1914)

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Britain grouped together different tribes

February 1917
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February 23 (Friday)  
February Revolution: industrial workers rioted over scarcity of food and cruel treatment.(1917)
October 1917
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October 24 (Wednesday)  
1917

October Revolution: leftist revolutionaries led by Bolshevik party leader (Vladimir Lenin) launched coup d’etat against provisional government...they occupied main/important buildings in the capital (Petrograd) 

July 1918
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July 1 (Monday)  
July 1918 : Czar Nicholas II and his family were murdered

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    • Russia became the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic which eventually formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR)

    • Lenin changes the name of the Bolshevik party to Russian Communist Party

    • 1918-22 - Civil war between the Red Army and White Russians, or anti-communists

January 1919
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January 1 (Wednesday)  
May Fourth Movement (1919)

    • attacked traditional Confucian ideas and exalted Western ideas, particularly science and democracy. Their inquiry into liberalism, pragmatism, nationalism, anarchism, and socialism provided a basis from which to criticize traditional Chinese ethics, philosophy, religion, and social and political institutions. 

    • patriotic feelings and the zeal for reform culminated in an incident on May 4, 1919,

    •  more than 3,000 students from 13 colleges in Beijing held a mass demonstration against the decision of the Versailles Peace Conference, which drew up the treaty officially ending World War I, to transfer the former German concessions in Shandong province to Japan. 

    • students burned the house of the minister of communications and assaulted China’s minister to Japan, both pro-Japanese officials. Over the following weeks, demonstrations occurred throughout the country; several students died or were wounded in these incidents, and more than 1,000 were arrested.

    • Faced with this growing tide of unfavourable public opinion, the government acquiesced; three pro-Japanese officials were dismissed, the cabinet resigned, and China refused to sign the peace treaty with Germany.

January 1920
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January 1 (Thursday)  
Creation of National Congress of British West Africa (1920)

    • founded in 1920, was one of the earliest nationalist organizations in West Africa, and one of the earliest formal organizations working toward African emancipation.

January 1921
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January 1 (Saturday)  
Formation of the CCP (1921)

    •  Formed by Chen Duxiu and Li Dizhao

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January 1 (Saturday)  
End of civil war, formal creation of Soviet Union (1921)
January 1923
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January 1 (Monday)  
Formation of Nigerian Democratic Party (1923)

    • Nigeria’s first political party

    • *National Youth Movement overtook the NNDP in 1938

January 1924
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January 1 (Tuesday)  
Lenin dies (1924)
December 1925
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December 15 (Tuesday)  
1925: Reza Khan becomes shah

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    • Ruled from 1925-1941

    • Accomplished: began regeneration of Iran→ established strong government with disciplined military force

    • Radical reforms: broke power of tribes, foreign powers, Trans-Iranian Railway, emancipated women, built schools, etc. 

January 1927
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January 1 (Saturday)  
KMT (nationalist) attack on CPP (1927)


  • well known as The Shanghai Massacre, occurred on April 12

    • Chiang Kai Shek & conservatives used violence to suppress communist party organizations in Shanghai

    • Set back communist party for many years

March 1929
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March 4 (Monday)  
Formation of PNR (renamed PRI in 1946) (March 4, 1929)
April 1930
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April 30 (Wednesday)  
Mexican Economic Miracle: April 3, 1930

    • Increase of GDP in Mexico's government. Everything started going up (the rift between the poor and rich grew closer)

January 1934
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January 1 (Monday)  
Long March (1934-1935)

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    •  embattled Chinese Communists broke through Nationalist enemy lines and began an epic flight from their encircled headquarters in southwest China. Known as the Long March, the trek lasted a year and covered some 4,000 miles (or more, by some estimates). The Long March marked the emergence of Mao Zedong (1893-1976) as the undisputed leader of the Chinese Communists.

July 1934
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July 1 (Sunday)  
Election of Lazaro Cardenas (July 1, 1934)
September 1941
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September 16 (Tuesday)  
1941: Mohammed Reza Pahlavi becomes shah

    • Last Pahlavi king

    • First years were marked by turmoil (had to flee country, returned after CIA orchestrated a coup d’etat)

    • 1960s: solidified rule and continued White Revolution (secularization and modernization) begun by father 

    • Provoked opposition from Left and Right and was forced to leave office 

May 1945
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May 1 (Tuesday)  
May 1945, Berlin fell to Russia

    • August 1945 The United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    • End of WW2

August 1953
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August 15 (Saturday)  
1953: Overthrow of Mossadeq government

    • Mossadeq was a very popular politician, but lose support after dissolving upper house of parliament, suspending supreme court, confiscating royal property, and expanding scope of martial law

January 1957
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January 1 (Tuesday)  
Great Leap Forward (1957)

    •  Mao Zedong attempted to make China an industrial superpower

    • China was reformed into a series of communes

    • Was a complete disaster and millions of people died of starvation

January 1960
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January 1 (Friday)  
Nigeria's Independence (1960)

    • Became independent from British rule on Oct 1st, 1960

    • Modeled a constitution/ gov.’t after the british 

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January 1 (Friday)  
First Republic (1960-1966)

    • Head of state during this time: Tafawa Bafta

    • He was an important part of gaining independence

January 1965
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January 1 (Friday)  
Beginning of Cultural Revolution (1965)

 shut down the nation’s schools, calling for a massive youth mobilization to take current party leaders to task for their embrace of bourgeois values and lack of revolutionary spirit. In the months that followed, the movement escalated quickly as the students formed paramilitary groups called the Red Guards and attacked and harassed members of China’s elderly and intellectual population

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January 1 (Friday)  
Russia backs up North Vietnam against USA (1965)
January 1967
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January 1 (Sunday)  
Nigerian Biafran War (1967)

    • Tried to make biafra its own republic/independent but it was unsuccessful & many died

    • 3 year long civil war resulted

January 1968
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January 1 (Monday)  
Olympic Games (1968)

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10 days before games started, Mexican military troops surround demonstration and open fire, killing around 100 people.

January 1972
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January 1 (Saturday)  
Opening to US (1972)

    •  Nixon visited the PRC in 1972

    • Opened trade and contacts

January 1978
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January 7 (Saturday)  
Iranian Revolution (1978-1979)

    • Gap between rich and poor led to unrest among citizens 

    • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini voiced ideas for a government built on traditional values 

    • After many protests and violent acts→ iran shifted from democracy to theocracy (islamic state) 

January 1979
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January 1 (Monday)  
Second Republic (1979-1983)

Head of state: Shehu Shagari

February 1979
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February 11 (Sunday)  
1979: Thatcher elected

    • Shift between Labour and Conservative Party

    • Led Tories further to right; during 18 years of leadership she privatized dozens of industries, tried dismantling much of the welfare state, and ended trade union militancy 

December 1979
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December 3 (Monday)  
1979: Khomeini becomes Supreme Leader

Emerged as leader for two main reasons: developed notion that senior clerics had the obligation and right to rule to ensure Iran remained Island and opposed the increasingly secular regime of the shah

September 1980
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September 22 (Monday)  
1980-1988: War with Iraq

    • The war followed a long history of border disputes, and was motivated by fears that the Iranian Revolution in 1979 would inspire insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shi'i majority

    • Resulted in at least half a million casualties and several billion dollars’ worth of damages, but no real gains by other side

September 1985
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September 19 (Thursday)  
Mexico Earthquake (September 19, 1985)

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Mexico is in a financial crisis when the earthquake hits. The people are dissatisfied with the government’s response and form organizations that grow to become a human rights and civic action movement.

January 1989
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January 1 (Sunday)  
Democracy Movement and Tiananmen Square (1989)

    •  Chinese troops storm through Tiananmen Square in the center of Beijing, killing and arresting thousands of pro-democracy protesters. The brutal Chinese government assault on the protesters shocked the West and brought denunciations and sanctions from the United States.

January 1993
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January 1 (Friday)  
Third Republic (1993)

    • Ernest Shonekan

January 1994
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January 1 (Saturday)  
NAFTA: January 1, 1994

    • NAFTA was signed by Canada, Mexico and the US thus creating a trade block in North America.

January 1997
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January 1 (Wednesday)  
Reversion of Hong Kong to PRC/ Death of Deng Xiaoping (1997)

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    •  the agreement stipulated that under Chinese rule the HKSAR would enjoy a high degree of autonomy, except in matters of foreign relations and defense, and that the social and economic systems as well as the lifestyle in Hong Kong would remain unchanged for 50 years after 1997. Many observers, however, expressed considerable skepticism about China’s pledge to abide by the "one country, two systems" plan outlined in the agreement. They feared that China would drastically curtail the rights and freedoms of Hong Kong residents.

January 1999
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January 1 (Friday)  
Fourth Republic (1999-2010)

    • Olusegun Obasanjo, Umaru Yar’Adua, Goodluck Jonathan

January 2000
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January 1 (Saturday)  
Vicente Fox wins presidency (2000)
January 2002
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January 1 (Tuesday)  
Russia becomes an ally of NATO (2002)
January 2008
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January 1 (Tuesday)  
2008: Onset of the economic crisis

    • In the UK there was a large fall in retail sales, especially in the furnishing and DIY sectors; businesses, already hit by falling sales and profitability, faced increasing problems in securing bank support for continued trading

    •  recession continued through 2009. However signs of recovery became apparent in the final quarter of the year, with GDP growth of just 0.3%

June 2009
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June 19 (Friday)  
2009: Green Movement

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    • Political movement that arose after the 2009 Iranian presidential election, in which protesters demanded the removal of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from office

    • The Green Movement progressed apace with mass demonstrations and civil disobedience until February 14, 2010, when its attempt to stage a rally in support of the emerging Arab revolutions was brutally suppressed. 

May 2010
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May 7 (Friday)  
2010: Coalition government elected

    • David Cameron→ big government is source of most of Britain’s problems→ sweeping budget cuts 

June 2016
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June 23 (Thursday)  
2016: BREXIT

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    • Leaving the EU may have a profound detrimental effects on UK’s economy, one of the reasons individuals feel conflicted about issue

    • Staying can preserve identity and culture 



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