Drugs From the Beginning of Time

Drug use and abuse, A timeline from the beginning to today. 

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2737 BC, MARIJAUNA

Marijuana has been used as an agent for achieving euphoria since ancient times; it was described in a Chinese medical reference traditionally considered to date from 2737 B.C. 

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3000 BC, COCA PLANT

Traces of coca have been found in mummies dating 3000 years back.[27] Other evidence dates the communal chewing of coca with lime 8000 years back.[28]Beginning with the Valdivian culture, circa 3000 BC.

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1545, MARIJUANA

In 1545 the Spanish brought marijuana to the New World. 

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1600's, PATENT MEDICINES

Patent medicines first appeared in England in the 1600's

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1611, MARIJUANA

The English introduced it in Jamestown in 1611 where it became a major commercial crop alongside tobacco and was grown as a source of fiber.

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1855-1860, COCA PLANT

Cocaine comes from the leaf of the coca tree, which is grown in South America, normally Columbia, Bolivia and Peru. It has been used for millennia, and it was brought to Europe for study by the Spanish. Its euphoric and anesthetic properties were discovered around 1860, and it soon became widely available.

The extraction process was the original barrier to purifying cocaine from the leaves, but the method was created and then improved repeatedly. It’s a relative simple process, but it requires some time and needs certain materials that were not available until the early 19th century. In 1855, it was extracted for the first time.

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1870's, DRUG POLICIES RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUPS

The first anti-opium laws in the 1870s were directed at Chinese immigrants.

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1900'S, DRUG POLICIES RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUPS

The first anti-cocaine laws, in the South in the early 1900s, were directed at black men. 

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1906, SINCLAIR'S THE JUNGLE

The Jungle is a 1906 novel written by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair (1878–1968).The book depicts working class poverty, the lack of social supports, harsh and unpleasant living and working conditions, and a hopelessness among many workers. These elements are contrasted with the deeply rooted corruption of people in power

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6/30/1906, PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT

The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was the first of a series of significant consumer protection laws enacted by Congress in the 20th century and led to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration.a law passed in 1906 to remove harmful and misrepresented foods and drugs from the market and regulate the manufacture and sale of drugs and food involved in interstate trade. The Pure Food and Drug Act was passed on the same day as the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. This act mandated examination of livestock before slaughter as well as analysis of carcasses, and required ongoing USDA inspection of slaughterhouses and processing plants. 

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1910'S-1920'S DRUG POLICIES RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUPS

 The first anti-marijuana laws, in the Midwest and the Southwest in the 1910s and 20s, were directed at Mexican migrants and Mexican Americans.

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12/27/1914, HARRISON ACT


An Act to provide for the registration of, with collectors of internal revenue, and to impose a special tax upon all persons who produce, import, manufacture, compound, deal in, dispense, sell, distribute, or give away opium or coca leaves, their salts, derivatives, or preparations, and for other purposes.
The Harrison Act was enacted with the support of the AMA and the American Pharmaceutical Association, both of which had grown more powerful and influential in the first two decades of the twentieth century, since the medical profession had been granted a monopoly on dispensing opiates and cocaine.

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01/16/1919, PROHIBITION

Prohibition began in 1919 and ended in 1933. During this time America saw a great deal of corruption and crime. this was also the start of criminal organization and corruption with the government. Also this did not stop the use of Alcohol because many chose not to respect this new federal law. So it only drove the Alcohol sale and use underground and into the hands of crime organizations. 

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1920'S MARIJUANA

It was in the 1920’s that marijuana began to catch on. Some historians say its emergence was brought about by Prohibition. Its recreational use was restricted to jazz musicians and people in show business.

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12/5/1933, PROHIBITION

The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed on December 5, 1933, This marked the end to prohibition. In 1933, when the repeal of Prohibition left a critical void in their business portfolios, criminal organizations turned to the drug trade.

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1960's, DRUG REHABILITATION PROGRAMS

During the 1960's The medical profession began to reassert itself on the issue of drug use in both treatment and research. Treating disciplines—psychology and social work—and researchers in sociology and public health began to focus on the drug issue as a social problem, not simply a law enforcement problem. The social activism of the 1960s also influenced the perspective on drug use (H. W. Morgan 1981), and a new strategic approach was implemented: reducing demand by rehabilitating large numbers of drug addicts.

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1966, DRUG REHABILITATION PROGRAMS

Also in 1966, Congress passed the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act, which in lieu of prosecution authorized federal district courts to order the voluntary and involuntary civil commitment of certain defendants who were found to be drug addicts and mandated the Surgeon General to establish rehabilitation and post-hospitalization care programs for drug addicts. The legislation also authorized the financing of state efforts to treat addicts.

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1970's CRACK COCAINE

While the use of coca leaves as an intoxicant dates back three thousand years, crack cocaine, a crystallized form of cocaine, was developed during the cocaine boom of the 1970s.

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1980's, CRACK COCAINE

During the 1980's, a new form of cocaine-called crack—became popular in a number of cities. The biggest surge in the use of the drug occurred during the “crack epidemic,” between 1984 and 1990, when the drug spread across American cities. The crack epidemic dramatically increased the number of Americans addicted to cocaine

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01/20/1981, RONALD REAGAN

The presidency of Ronald Reagan marked the start of a long period of skyrocketing rates of incarceration, largely thanks to his unprecedented expansion of the drug war. Soon after Ronald Reagan took office in 1981, his wife, Nancy Reagan, began a highly-publicized anti-drug campaign, coining the slogan "Just Say No." 

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1982, MARIJUANA

Beginning in 1982 the Drug Enforcement Administration turned increased attention to marijuana farms in the United States, and there was a shift to the indoor growing of plants specially developed for small size and high yield.

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1986, 1990''s

This is a link to a powerful view on the war on drugs. 

https://vp.nyt.com/video/2016/09/12/42544_1_opinion-jay-z-warondrugs_wg_360p.mp4

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1990'S

The 1990s began a remarkable period of a lack of political interest in drug use. With the new century, the use of methamphetamine increased, with new supplies coming from Mexico. In some areas methamphetamine became as popular as cocaine. The twenty-first century, too, saw a rise in the use of methamphetamine in rural parts of the United States, while in urban areas crack use has ceased to be an epidemic. Concern over the non medical use of prescription medicine has led the government to focus on that problem.

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1990'S, MARIJUANA

After over a decade of decreasing use, marijuana smoking began an upward trend once more in the early 1990s, especially among teenagers.

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TODAY, DRUG POLICIES RACIAL AND ETHNIC GROUPS

Today, Latino and especially black communities are still subject to wildly disproportionate drug enforcement and sentencing practices.

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TODAY, MARIJUANA

Attitudes regarding legalization, Many advocate legalization of cannabis, believing that it will eliminate the illegal trade and associated crime, yield valuable tax and reduce policing costs

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TODAY, CRACK COCAINE

America’s opioid epidemic is fueling a startling increase in cocaine-related overdose deaths in recent years, as users mix deadly cocktails involving the stimulant that had otherwise shown encouraging signs of stalling impact, according to a U.S. News analysis of mortality data.

The findings raise serious concerns about the extent to which drug users are mixing cocaine, which can result in overdose on its own, with even more deadly drugs like heroin and fentanyl, a strong synthetic opioid. It also raises questions about whether people are mixing the drugs intentionally or are falling victim to tainted products.



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