AP Comp Gov Timeline
February 1904
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February 8 (Monday)  
Russo-Japanese War

Fought by Russian Empire and Empire of Japan over ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. Ended September 5, 1905

August 1905
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August 5 (Saturday)  
Constitutional Revolution (Iran 1905-1911)

    • - Initially succeeded because it promised to firm the legal status of Islam, strengthen the state, institute economic reforms, and codify legal system 

    • - Establishment of the first Majlis (parliament)

    • - Conditions worsened (conflict between different leaders and views) 

November 1910
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November 20 (Sunday)  
Mexican Revolution

Start of the Mexican Revolution. Middle-class protested against dictator, Porfiro Diaz, due to the growing rift between the rich and poor.

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November 20 (Sunday)  
Election of 1910

Francisco Madero, a landowning lawyer and a member of Mexico’s liberal, educated class, unsuccessfully opposes Díaz in the year’s presidential elections.

February 1912
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February 12 (Monday)  
Overthrow of the Qing dynasty

    • - Qing Dynasty was China’s last imperial dynasty

    • - People’s Republic of China was established

February 1913
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February 2 (Sunday)  
Overthrowing Madero

Madero is overthrown by a coup led by his own military chief, General Victoriano Huerta. 

January 1914
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January 1 (Thursday)  
Unification of Nigeria as a single colony

- Britain grouped together different tribes

June 1914
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June 28 (Sunday)  
Outbreak of World War I

Entered World War I with the largest army in the world.

January 1917
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January 23 (Tuesday)  
February Revolution

Took place in St. Petersburg (Petrograd), the industrial workers rioted over scarcity of food and cruel treatment.

October 1917
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October 24 (Wednesday)  
October Revolution

Leftist Revolutionaries led by Bolshevik Party (Vladimir Lenin); they launched a coup d'etat against the provisional government. Occupied crucial city positions and buildings and took control.

July 1918
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July 16 (Tuesday)  
Czar Nicholas and his family were murdered


    • Russia became the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic which eventually formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR)

    • Lenin changes the name of the Bolshevik party to Russian Communist Party

    • 1918-22 - Civil war between the Red Army and White Russians, or anti-communists

May 1919
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May 4 (Sunday)  
May Fourth Movement


    • - attacked traditional Confucian ideas and exalted Western ideas, particularly science and democracy. Their inquiry into liberalism, pragmatism, nationalism, anarchism, and socialism provided a basis from which to criticize traditional Chinese ethics, philosophy, religion, and social and political institutions. 

    • - patriotic feelings and the zeal for reform culminated in an incident on May 4, 1919,

    • - more than 3,000 students from 13 colleges in Beijing held a mass demonstration against the decision of the Versailles Peace Conference, which drew up the treaty officially ending World War I, to transfer the former German concessions in Shandong province to Japan. 

    • - students burned the house of the minister of communications and assaulted China’s minister to Japan, both pro-Japanese officials. Over the following weeks, demonstrations occurred throughout the country; several students died or were wounded in these incidents, and more than 1,000 were arrested.

    • - Faced with this growing tide of unfavourable public opinion, the government acquiesced; three pro-Japanese officials were dismissed, the cabinet resigned, and China refused to sign the peace treaty with Germany.

March 1920
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March 11 (Thursday)  
Creation of National Congress of British West Africa

- founded in 1920, was one of the earliest nationalist organizations in West Africa, and one of the earliest formal organizations working toward African emancipation.

July 1921
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July 1 (Friday)  
Formation of Chinese Communist Party

Formed by Chen Duxiu and Li Dizhao

October 1922
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October 20 (Friday)  
Soviet Union

End of Russian civil war and formal creation of the Soviet Union

September 1923
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September 1 (Saturday)  
Formation of Nigerian Democratic Party

    • - Nigeria’s first political party

    • - *National Youth Movement overtook the NNDP in 1938

January 1924
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January 21 (Monday)  
Lenin Dies

Vladimir Lenin died from an intracerebral hemorrhage. 

December 1925
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December 15 (Tuesday)  
Reza Khan becomes shah

    • - Ruled from 1925-1941

    • - Accomplished: began regeneration of Iran→ established strong government with disciplined military force

    • - Radical reforms: broke power of tribes, foreign powers, Trans-Iranian Railway, emancipated women, built schools, etc. 

April 1927
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April 12 (Tuesday)  
Nationalist attack on Chinese Communist Party

    •  - Aka the Shanghai Massacre, occurred on April 12

    • - Chiang Kai Shek & conservatives used violence to suppress communist party organizations in Shanghai

    • - Set back communist party for many years

March 1929
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March 4 (Monday)  
PNR (National Revolutionary Party)

PNR was formed by Plutarco Elias Calles, later renamed PRI in 1946.

April 1930
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April 3 (Thursday)  
Mexican Economic Miracle

Increase of GDP in Mexico's government. Everything started going up (the rift between the poor and rich grew closer)

July 1934
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July 1 (Sunday)  
1934 Election

Lazaro Cardenas elected as president

October 1934
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October 16 (Tuesday)  
Long March

 - embattled Chinese Communists broke through Nationalist enemy lines and began an epic flight from their encircled headquarters in southwest China. Known as the Long March, the trek lasted a year and covered some 4,000 miles (or more, by some estimates). The Long March marked the emergence of Mao Zedong (1893-1976) as the undisputed leader of the Chinese Communists.

September 1941
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September 16 (Tuesday)  
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi becomes shah

    • - Last Pahlavi king

    • - First years were marked by turmoil (had to flee country, returned after CIA orchestrated a coup d’etat)

    • - 1960s: solidified rule and continued White Revolution (secularization and modernization) begun by father 

    • - Provoked opposition from Left and Right and was forced to leave office

May 1945
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May 2 (Wednesday)  
Berlin falls to Russia

    • August 1945 The United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    • End of WW2

October 1949
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October 1 (Saturday)  
Great Leap Forward

    •  - Mao Zedong attempted to make China an industrial superpower

    • - China was reformed into a series of communes

    • - Was a complete disaster and millions of people died of starvation

August 1953
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August 19 (Wednesday)  
Overthrow of Mossadeq government

Mossadeq was a very popular politician, but lost support after dissolving upper house of parliament, suspending supreme court, confiscating royal property, and expanding scope of martial law

October 1960
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October 1 (Saturday)  
Independence

    • - Became independent from British rule on Oct 1st, 1960

    • - Modeled a constitution/ gov.’t after the british 

October 1963
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October 1 (Tuesday)  
First Republic

    • - Head of state during this time: Tafawa Bafta

    • - He was an important part of gaining independence

May 1965
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May 6 (Thursday)  
Beginning of Cultural Revolution

- shut down the nation’s schools, calling for a massive youth mobilization to take current party leaders to task for their embrace of bourgeois values and lack of revolutionary spirit. In the months that followed, the movement escalated quickly as the students formed paramilitary groups called the Red Guards and attacked and harassed members of China’s elderly and intellectual population

November 1965
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November 1 (Monday)  
Vietnam War feat. Russia

Russia backs up North Vietnam in their attack against the US.

January 1966
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January 15 (Saturday)  
Nigeria becomes a military regime

Nigeria becomes military regime 

July 1967
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July 6 (Thursday)  
Nigerian Biafran War


    • - Tried to make biafra its own republic/independent but it was unsuccessful & many died

    • - 3 year long civil war resulted
  • - Ended January 15, 1970

October 1968
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October 2 (Wednesday)  
Olympic Games Massacre

Mexican military troops surround demonstration and open fire, killing around 100 people.

September 1976
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September 9 (Thursday)  
Mao Zedong's death

Formal end of the cultural revolution

January 1978
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January 22 (Sunday)  
Iranian Revolution


    • - Gap between rich and poor led to unrest among citizens 

    • - Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini voiced ideas for a government built on traditional values 

    • - After many protests and violent acts→ iran shifted from democracy to theocracy (islamic state) 

    • Ended February 1979.

February 1979
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February 1 (Thursday)  
Khomeini becomes Supreme Leader

Emerged as leader for two main reasons: developed notion that senior clerics had the obligation and right to rule to ensure Iran remained Island and opposed the increasingly secular regime of the shah

May 1979
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May 23 (Wednesday)  
Margaret Thatcher elected Prime Minister

    • - Shift between Labour and Conservative Party

    • - Led Tories further to right; during 18 years of leadership she privatized dozens of industries, tried dismantling much of the welfare state, and ended trade union militancy 

October 1979
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October 1 (Monday)  
Second Republic

Head of state: Shehu Shagari

September 1980
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September 22 (Monday)  
War with Iraq

    • - The war followed a long history of border disputes, and was motivated by fears that the Iranian Revolution in 1979 would inspire insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shi'i majority

    • - Resulted in at least half a million casualties and several billion dollars’ worth of damages, but no real gains by other side

September 1985
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September 19 (Thursday)  
Mexico Earthquake

Mexico is in a financial crisis when the earthquake hits. The people are dissatisfied with the government’s response and form organizations that grow to become a human rights and civic action movement.

April 1989
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April 15 (Saturday)  
Democracy Movement and Tiananmen Square

- Chinese troops storm through Tiananmen Square in the center of Beijing, killing and arresting thousands of pro-democracy protesters. The brutal Chinese government assault on the protesters shocked the West and brought denunciations and sanctions from the United States.

July 1990
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July 15 (Sunday)  
War against drugs

Campaign of prohibition of military aid intended to reduce illegal drug trade.

June 1993
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June 12 (Saturday)  
Third Republic

    • Ernest Shonekan

January 1994
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January 1 (Saturday)  
North American Free Trade Agreement

NAFTA was signed by Canada, Mexico and the US thus creating a trade block in North America.

July 1997
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July 1 (Tuesday)  
Reversion of Hong Kong to PRC/ Death of Deng Xiaoping

 - the agreement stipulated that under Chinese rule the HKSAR would enjoy a high degree of autonomy, except in matters of foreign relations and defense, and that the social and economic systems as well as the lifestyle in Hong Kong would remain unchanged for 50 years after 1997. Many observers, however, expressed considerable skepticism about China’s pledge to abide by the "one country, two systems" plan outlined in the agreement. They feared that China would drastically curtail the rights and freedoms of Hong Kong residents.

May 1999
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May 29 (Saturday)  
Fourth Republic

Olusegun Obasanjo, Umaru Yar’Adua, Goodluck Jonathan

May 2002
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May 29 (Wednesday)  
Russia & NATO

Russia becomes an ally of NATO

March 2008
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March 18 (Tuesday)  
Onset of the economic crisis

    • - In the UK there was a large fall in retail sales, especially in the furnishing and DIY sectors; businesses, already hit by falling sales and profitability, faced increasing problems in securing bank support for continued trading

    •  - recession continued through 2009. However signs of recovery became apparent in the final quarter of the year, with GDP growth of just 0.3%

June 2009
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June 23 (Tuesday)  
Green Movement


    • - Political movement that arose after the 2009 Iranian presidential election, in which protesters demanded the removal of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from office

    • - The Green Movement progressed apace with mass demonstrations and civil disobedience until February 14, 2010, when its attempt to stage a rally in support of the emerging Arab revolutions was brutally suppressed. 

May 2010
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May 12 (Wednesday)  
Coalition government elected

- David Cameron→ big government is source of most of Britain’s problems→ sweeping budget cuts 

June 2016
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June 23 (Thursday)  
BREXIT

  • - Leaving the EU may have a profound detrimental effects on UK’s economy, one of the reasons individuals feel conflicted about issue

  • - Staying can preserve identity and culture 



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